This post was originally published on the New Bamboo blog, before New Bamboo joined thoughtbot in London.
I’d been a happy Screen user for quite a few years. I’m also a Vim user and this combination means I get to spend a lot of time in the terminal. There were a few reasons I finally decided to make the switch. The biggest one was that here at New Bamboo I was the sole Screen user surrounded by many enthusiastic Tmux users (including the author of Hermes) and I felt I was missing out on being able to tap into all this expertise!
Almost as importantly, Tmux’s great UTF-8 support means I can include an adorable panda face in my prompt:
There were a few specific tips and bits of configuration which made the initial transition from Screen very pain free and allowed me to get up and running quickly:
I was used to starting or reattaching to a Screen session with:
The flags tell screen to use UTF-8 encoding (
U), detach elsewhere and reattach
d) and finally to reattach if possible, otherwise start a new session
Tmux requires us to be a little more explicit. To start a new session:
tmux new -s <session name>
To reattach to an existing session:
tmux attach -t <session name>
That’s a little too much typing for my liking, so I alias these two commands to
To detach (as in Screen):
<prefix e.g. C-a> + d
Tmux automatically turns on UTF-8 support if it successfully detects a UTF-8 capable terminal, so there’s usually no need to specify this explicitly.
By default Tmux commands are prefixed with
Ctrl-b. In Screen it’s
which has been firmly committed to my muscle memory. Fortunately it’s easy to
change this by adding the following to our
unbind C-b set -g prefix C-a
Great, now we can move around our windows with
Ctrl-a + n,
Ctrl-a + p and
Ctrl-a + <window-number> just like in Screen.
One missing piece is the ability to toggle back to your previous window with
Ctrl-a + Ctrl-a. This can be achieved by adding the following to our
bind-key C-a last-window
In Bash (using the default readline key bindings)
Ctrl-a moves the cursor to
the beginning of the line. Within Screen this becomes
Ctrl-a + a. To enable
the same combination within Bash in a Tmux window add the following to your
bind a send-prefix
As a Vim user, I noticed pretty quickly that Vim/OS X clipboard integration
(enabled in my vim config with
set clipboard=unnamed) didn’t work under Tmux.
A quick Google led me to Chris Johnsen’s excellent set of notes and
workarounds which provides a wrapper script
you can use to start all new Tmux windows. This fixes clipboard integration and
got me back the functionality I was missing.
I was happy to find that paging/searching back through terminal scrollback
history is exactly the same in Tmux as in Screen. To enable copy mode use
Ctrl-a + [. From here you can page up and down with
can also search backwards using
? followed by your pattern. To exit copy mode
I’ve been using Tmux for a while now and I’m really happy with it as part of my toolchain. There’s a great community out there so it’s generally straightforward to find answers to questions and solve any issues. It’s also under active development with regular releases which is great news for users.