Hereâ€™s a fun mental shortcut I recently learned: getting the histogram
distribution in Ruby is double `#tally`

.

Consider this opening passage from the novel *A Tale of Two Cities*:

It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness

We’d like to build a histogram of letter frequency. How would we get those numbers?

## Per-letter distribution

`Enumerable#tally`

is a method that was introduced in Ruby 2.7, equivalent to
the older solution `group_by(&:itself).transform_values(&:count)`

. We start by
turning the string of text into a cleaned array of normalized characters which
I’m calling `corpus`

.

Calling `#tally`

on that array tells us how often each letter is used:

```
> corpus.tally
=> {"k"=>1,
"y"=>1,
"u"=>1,
"b"=>2,
"p"=>2,
"m"=>3,
"r"=>3,
"g"=>3,
"d"=>3,
"c"=>3,
"l"=>4,
"n"=>5,
"f"=>10,
"w"=>10,
"h"=>12,
"a"=>13,
"o"=>16,
"i"=>16,
"t"=>22,
"s"=>22,
"e"=>22}
```

Graphing it visually we get:

## Frequency of frequencies

This isn’t quite good enough though. A histogram doesn’t answer the question
â€śhow many times did the letter `e`

get usedâ€ť, instead it answers the question
â€śhow many letters get used 22 times?â€ś.

We no longer care about the individual letters, instead we want to `#tally`

the
frequencies:

```
corpus.tally.values.tally
=> {1=>3, 2=>2, 3=>5, 4=>1, 5=>1, 10=>2, 12=>1, 13=>1, 16=>2, 22=>3}
```

and the graph looks like:

3 letters got used once, 2 letters got used twice, etc. We can see that most letters get used only a few times but that there are some outliers that get used extremely frequently.

The next time youâ€™re trying to calculate a histogram, bring out the handy double
`#tally`

!

## Full corpus

And for those who are curious, hereâ€™s what the distribution looks like for the whole book. Note that each column represents a range of values in slices of 5000.