Those of you coming from a Google search are about to be disappointed: this is a post about types of coupling in programming.
Coupling refers to the degree to which components in your program rely on each other. You should generally seek to minimize this property, though you’ll see it’s impossible to eliminate entirely.
Here are a few types of coupling, ordered by severity (first is worst):
Your class reaches inside another class and reads (or, perish the thought, changes) its instance variables.
You are literally pathological and deserve the pain this will cause you.
class NuclearLaunchController def initialize(launch_codes) @launch_codes = launch_codes end end class ExtremelyBadIdea def initialize(nuclear_launch_controller) @launch_controller = nuclear_launch_controller end def do_bad_things # This is poison @launch_controller.instance_variable_set(:@launch_codes, 'password') end end
As mentioned by Mike Burns in the comments, monkey-patching falls into this category. Beware!
You have two classes that both rely on some shared global data, maybe a Singleton or a class variable.
When many test files all depend on global factory definitions, a change to any one can ripple through the system.
# spec/factories.rb FactoryBot.define do factory :user do # Changes here are global and can affect many test files. end end # spec/model/user_spec.rb before do # This refers to global data. @user = build_stubbed(:user) end # spec/model/order_spec.rb before do # So does this. @user = build_stubbed(:user) end
Note that this is probably an example where the cure (duplicating the logic for creating test objects in every spec) is worse than the disease.
You pass in a flag that tells a method what to do.
ActiveRecord? That boolean argument caused control
coupling. Remember how we all had to change our code when it became
save(validate: false)? If we’d been calling
save_without_validation instead, Rails Core could have refactored that method
more times than the router and we’d never have known. Also, notice that passing
validate: false into
save does not reduce the coupling, it’s just disguised
Control couples are smelly because the calling method has intimate knowledge of how the receiver implements the method being called. You’re determining what an object should do from outside it. Good OOP lets objects decide what to do based on their own state.
def save(should_run_validations=true) # When you see a parameter in a conditional, that's control coupling. # The fact that this method has an if in it has leaked out into client code. # Changes can now require changes in these clients. if should_run_validations run_validations persist else persist end end # One possible fix: define two methods and let the clients # choose which to call. Now we can refactor either without # affecting clients. def save run_validations persist end def save_without_validations persist end
You call a method and pass it a parameter that doesn’t affect its control flow.
This is still coupling, but we’re starting to reach the kind that isn’t so bad. Sometimes you need parameters! If you wanted to remove all coupling you wouldn’t be able to pass data between objects at all.
class ScreenPrinter # This method is coupled to its parameter, because a change to that argument # can cause breakage (if we undefined to_s, for example). def print(text) output_to_screen(text.to_s) end end
You call a method on an object and send no parameters.
You’re coupled to the name of the message, but not any hint of its implementation. This is the loosest type of coupling and should be your goal. Notice that this makes methods that take no arguments better than methods that take one (and so on).
# No reliance on anything outside this object. Feels good, yo. class ScreenPrinter def print_to_screen output_to_screen(@text) end end
Keep an eye out for the nasty types of coupling in your code, and see if you can can’t refactor it into something further down the ladder.
(I cribbed this list of coupling types from Wikipedia’s article, paraphrased and added examples. The original article is worth reading.)