- 41 Winter St
- 7th Floor
- Boston, MA 02108
Chad Pytel leads the day-to-day operations of thoughtbot, including human resources, hiring, and growth, and is responsible for overall strategy for the company. He has fifteen years of experience in software development and services, and has co-authored two books: Rails AntiPatterns and Pro ActiveRecord for Ruby. Chad holds bachelor of science degrees in both Computer Science and Humanities & Arts (Drama/Theatre) from Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI).
Matt works with the full management team and local office leadership to ensure the company's operational and financial success. He serves as an advisor to our clients and as a mentor to company employees. He is the unofficial organizational ombudsman. Prior to joining thoughtbot Matt was the CTO of a publishing technology startup. He has decades of experience as an Internet wrangling generalist, and holds a B.S. in Technical Communication from Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI).
Dan oversees all of our marketing efforts. He has been making things on the web since 1998. He hired thoughtbot as a client in 2006 and joined thoughtbot as a Ruby on Rails developer in 2007. He has helped make software products for more than 50 of thoughtbot's clients. He started thoughtbot's San Francisco office and led it for its first year and a half.
Joe provides technical leadership and support to the thoughtbot team. He found a home at thoughtbot after spending several years on the freelance and software consulting battlefield. He has been coding since he first laid eyes on a computer, and has been a Ruby enthusiast since he discovered Rails in 2005. In his spare time, he plays guitar and frisbee. Joe is an avid 3-letter acronym hater.
Mike Burns leads our Stockholm office. He has been a Web developer since before the first bubble burst. He founded the Classical Code Reading Group of Stockholm, brought the joy of vim to the company, is passionate about Free Software, and uses Haskell and Scala for personal projects. Email him at email@example.com.
Desi leads our Denver office. She has been in the business of building software in one way or another since graduating from Georgia Tech in 2000. Her favorite language is Ruby. She is one of the cofounders of DevChix, an organization of women software developers around the world. Desi is also active in the RailsBridge community and volunteers much of her time to teaching and increasing diversity in our community. She enjoys traveling, meeting new people and learning about different cultures.
Josh leads our Boston office. After spending years writing ASP and C#, Josh found solace in Ruby and realized that crying while programming was OK (as long as they were tears of joy). When he's not programming, he enjoys biking and playing drums.
Adarsh leads our San Francisco office. He trained as scientist and worked as a management consultant for McKinsey among other firms until vowing to never use PowerPoint again. A graduate of the apprentice.io program, Adarsh holds a B.S. in Biochemistry from the University of Michigan and a Ph.D in Biophysics from the University of Chicago. He can be found listening to 90's hiphop, cycling, playing poker, watching football, or eating at Chipotle.
Kyle leads our Philadelphia office. He has been designing and developing, in some form, since the turn of the century. His roots reach back to fine arts and print design but once he started designing for the web he never turned back.
Jason leads our Raleigh office. He began his programming career at Virginia Tech writing applications in Ruby on Rails. Since then he has taken every opportunity to improve his coding and TDD skills. Graduating from Radford University tucked in the mountains of Virginia, he enjoys the outdoors, wakeboarding, snowboarding, and riding curves on his motorcycle.
Britt leads our Austin office. He has been developing software professionally for over a decade. Britt holds a degree in Computer Engineering from Texas A&M University in College Station, TX. When not solving problems behind the keyboard you can find Britt cycling, running, reading or enjoying craft beers with exotic foods.
Ben leads our online education site, Upcase. He is a Vim evangelist, Apple fanboy, and an embarrassingly-frequent Boloco customer. He's spoken at RailsConf, finished 11th in the Rails Rumble, and is flirting with entering the top 50 Rails committers. When not Vimming, he sings in a barbershop quartet and assistant-directs a chorus. Ben believes in TDD, A/B testing, and remapping caps lock to escape.
Trace leads our New York City office. After a career in user experience design, Trace became a coder by pair programming with numerous wizardly developers, then teaching as many people as possible. Trace holds B.S. and M.S. degrees in Computer Science from Stanford University. He enjoys playing the viola, giving New York pizza tours, evangelizing lean development, and taming wild capybara test suites.
Jon Yurek is an experienced programmer with proven problem solving skills and the tenacity to attack complex problems head-on. He has co-authored a book, titled Pro ActiveRecord for Ruby. Jon graduated from WPI with a B.S. degree in Computer Science.
Matt (a.k.a "Goose") first started programming in Qbasic at the age of twelve where a love for the craft was developed. By sixteen he was running an Apache server from his home computer with PHP and MySQL. In 2005 he jumped on the rails bandwagon and has been immersed in rails development ever since. During that time he's been the instructor of numerous introductory and intermediate rails courses and has taught hundreds of developers from around the world.
With an approach to UI design that entails a user-centered design philosophy at its core, Phil strives to combine theory with practice by creating a trail of well crafted pixels wherever he goes. Phil graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute with a B.S. in Graphic Design.
Prem is a web developer who also loves clean code and good user interfaces. He started developing for the web in 2001 using PHP. However, after he discovered Ruby on Rails in 2007, he never looked back. He loves tackling programming related problems, and always enjoys sitting in front of his computer diving into a hard problem to solve it. He also enjoys contributing back to Ruby on Rails in order to give back to the community and improve his beloved web framework.
Gabe has been coding in one language or another for half his life. He found Ruby in 2005 and hasn't looked back since. In his free time, he likes to bake bread and watch Joss Whedon shows.
Galen loves to innovate by challenging convention with unique insights and exceptional design. Driven by a passion for user experience and entrepreneurship, he strives to build products that respond to the needs of real people and empower the success of new ventures. Galen holds a dual B.S. degree from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's Programs in Design and Innovation.
Reda Lemeden, a.k.a Kaishin, enjoys conceptualizing problems and solving them using technology and design. When he is not pushing pixels or sketching wireframes, he is most likely reading Japanese comics or playing action RPGs. Reda holds a master degree in business and has been designing interfaces since 2006.
Mason began his web development career at a young age working for a local internet service provider in his home town on Martha's Vineyard. Before joining thoughtbot he was a Hackstar for the Techstars Boston program. Mason attended the University of Vermont where he earned a degree in both Math and Computer Science along with a love for Vermont cheddar cheese.
Dan has worked for 12+ years as a developer, linux/BSD sysadmin, RDBMS and NoSQL DBA, DevOps engineer, strategic consultant and project manager. He's used numerous FOSS languages but is happiest writing Ruby. He came to thoughtbot via the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University. His hobbies mostly involve making things you can eat or drink: cooking, gardening, and brewing cider and mead.
Ruby, Rails, Vim, Git, Apple products and elegant code are among the things that Greg is passionate about. His other passions include outdoor activities, recreational sports and good books.
Magnus has been designing user interfaces for more than eight years. Everything from medical devices and complex steering systems to experimental interaction design concepts for raising awareness around energy consumption. Magnus holds a master degree in interaction design and has a three year background in cognitive science studies.
Mark began programming in 2003 by building content management systems in PHP. He transitioned to Objective-C in 2009 after the release of the iPhone SDK. A minimalist by nature, he enjoys writing clean code and crafting simple designs. In his spare time, you can find him playing guitar, eating breakfast for dinner and moderating on Stack Overflow.
Trevor has been developing software professionally for 12 years, building products for both startups and established companies. Prior to joining thoughtbot, he was VP Engineering of SCVNGR. Trevor holds a Bachelor's degree in Computer Science from Colgate University. In his free time he enjoys cooking and the New York Football Giants.
A self-taught Objective-C developer, Gordon left a career in film editing to pursue his passion in software development. When he isn't typing square brackets and semi-colons, he has been known to indulge in some Good Livin', and enjoys an occasional dose of Advanced Cellular Repair Technology.
Caleb has been a software engineer for four years, with experience in x86 Assembly, Java, C++, C#, and Ruby on Rails. He has braved the wintry tundra of Alaska and the harsh deserts of Arizona where he earned a Bachelor’s of Science degree in Software Engineering from the University of Advancing Technology. He has fired a Mosin–Nagant without blinking, fought the Red Menace, built Battleship Couch, killed a bear and wore its pelt, and bludgeoned a man with a motherboard. He enjoys fine wines, craft beers, Futurama, and punching comets.
George has been building websites professionally since 2005. Before joining thoughtbot he wrote Ruby and Python for startups in London and Stockholm, and built Mac apps like Choosy. George holds a B.Sc. in Computer Science from the University of Manchester in the UK. He enjoys tea, good beer and walking in the forest near his home in Stockholm.
Anna brings her experience in administration, human resources, and event planning from the non-profit realm. A graduate of Tulane University, she enjoys hosting friends and family, traveling, and cooking with in-season food.
Scott has been building websites since the late 90's. Before joining thoughtbot he worked on Rails applications at an email service provider, co-founded a web development company and wrote too much PHP. Scott believes in maintainable code, consistent style and getting real.
Jessie is a Bay Area native, Dev Bootcamp graduate, Railsbridge alum, and TDD believer. Before taking the plunge into web development, Jessie was doing marketing for start-ups. She double majored in Philosophy and Government at Colby College and is a proud lefty.
Not to be confused with Alec Baldwin, Alex has been designing for the web since he was 12. He listens to beats and drinks lattes while he furiously types away at the keyboard.
Arun is a Ruby, Ruby on Rails programmer. He has been working with Rails since 2007. He loves to contribute to open source software, especially Rails. Follow him.
Josh is focused on crafting smart and easy to use applications. Before joining thoughtbot, he worked on Rails applications for Major League Gaming. In his spare time he enjoys playing volleyball, cooking, and good IPAs. Josh graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute with a B.S. in Computer Science.
Chris is a big fan of Vim and the general Unix philosophy of sharp, focused tools. He started his career as a mechanical engineer but has always had a passion for programming, specifically web development. He has worked in Visual Basic and Python, but since finding Ruby and Rails, there’s been no looking back. Outside of coding, Chris is a fan of dinner with friends, skiing, and an embarrassingly eclectic cross section of music.
Derek got his start with Perl, VB, and ASP before settling in to C#. He picked up Ruby as a curiousity in 2009 and soon after left Visual Studio for good. Away from the keyboard, you can find Derek playing with his two boys, riding bikes, or taking recreational sports way too seriously.
Diana began her love affair with Objective-C during her time at App Academy and has never looked back. After earning a math/econ degree from UCSD, she discovered that there’s actually a career for people who like making apps all day. When she’s not tapping away at the keyboard, she enjoys rewatching Star Wars and playing video games that involve coins.
Elliot has been working with Ruby and Rails for 5+ years, although he's been programming in some form from an early age. He thinks that good software is well designed not only on the outside out but also on the inside. Whether it's learning to snowboard or trying to get a better score in Scrabble, Elliot is always up for a good challenge. As an engineer, he's fascinated in what makes things tick, but he also finds joy in the simple act of creating stuff.
Originally from the Pacific Northwest, Laila is a graduate of Dev Bootcamp and apprentice.io. Before deciding to write code for a living, she studied economics, traveled the world, and did marketing for a cleantech startup. She enjoys pair programming, good writing, and most pickled foods.
Melissa began her programming career writing Scheme and Perl. Since then, she's explored more languages through her work in web dev, performance monitoring, and NLP and developed a passion for educating younger students on the awesomeness of computer science. Besides programming, you can also find her singing, playing board games, or learning the origins of Chinese characters.
Joël is passionate about good architecture, OO, and best practices. He started his career writing PHP before falling in love with Ruby and Coffeescript. When he is not writing code, you can find him buried in a history book or exploring the city of Boston.
Sean is a fanatic about Vim, Rails, and TDD. After spending far too long with PHP and ASP.NET, he's never looked back since joining the Ruby community. When he's not writing code, he enjoys fedoras, fine cigars, and blogging about the games industry.
Pat got his start programming by teaching himself Haskell as a hobby. At the same time, he began getting his hands dirty in an OOP language called X++ at work. This combination of functional and OO programming provides a unique and useful approach to creating software. Pat cut his Rails-teeth on a large legacy application and saw the kind of mess an untested codebase can become. He loves building clean code and simple designs that scale well.
Joanne is an experienced developer who thinks a lot about data visualization, best practices, and web standards. When she's not happily writing code at thoughtbot, she can be found exploring the mountains of Colorado or experimenting with creative programming projects.
Devon enjoys exploring the 'why' factor behind design, which often means she's studying how people interact with the world. She strives to create engaging and thoughtful experiences with the overarching goal of helping others. When she's not tinkering on a project, Devon loves roadtrips, painting, and hiking with her fiance and their adorable corgi.
Carlo has been passionate about building happy and healthy communities since earning his degree in Marketing Communications from the Fashion Institute of Technology in 2006. This is why he feels blessed to be able to do the work he loves within an industry he finds most fascinating. On weekends, you'll most likely find him learning about bio-dynamic farming all over the Bay Area.
Andrew is a traditionally-trained designer with a B.A. in Graphic Design from George Mason University. For the last 6+ years he has focused solely on web, interface, and product design. He believes the best designers are the ones willing to get their hands dirty at every stage of the process, from concept to code. Outside of design Andrew is passionate about cycling, the outdoors, motorcycles, Arsenal FC, and is a burrito connoisseur. Follow him.
Jack has been developing with Objective-C since the olden days, before Cocoa was even called Cocoa. He spends most of his time working on iOS projects, and has also spent a few years in the trenches working on Rails applications. He's also managed to find time to write a few books on iOS and Mac development in the past few years. In the few moments when he's not coding or thinking about coding, Jack enjoys spending time with his family, playing guitar, and working on game projects.
Lisa enjoys designing products and experiences that empower people, businesses, and communities. Before Lisa became an apprentice, she was at Wesleyan University, where she spent her leisure time learning how to make websites and create digital illustrations. She enjoys cooking, biking, playing stringed folk instruments, live music, DIY projects, reading, and being in nature.
Lydia studied Art History at Trinity College before working as a visual designer in the creative department of a digital ad agency. She then realized that coding is fun. This, and a love of robots, led her to thoughtbot.
Rich fell in love with programming while building websites during college. Before joining thoughtbot he embarked on several startup adventures and founded an iOS consultancy. Outside of work Rich can be found rock climbing, eating delicious BBQ, or rooting for Boston sports teams. He holds a B.S. in Management with concentrations in Economics and Information Systems from Boston College. Follow him on Twitter.
Paul loves making applications that are easy, efficient and fun for people to use. In 2006 he started designing websites, and soon after stumbled upon Rails. Since then Paul has been both designing and developing software for non profits and businesses in various industries.
Christian enjoys designing and building good products for good people, and believes that we can use design as a tool to take better care of our users. When not designing, Christian enjoys backpacking in the Blue Ridge, playing board games, and geeking out about coffee.
A roll dog at heart, Tony graduated from Northeastern University with an Electrical and Computer Engineering degree. He's been programming since his childhood and has done a bit of everything from full stack web development to native mobile apps. He still retains his love of hardware and is always looking for ways to combine that knowlege with software wizardry. When he's not working or hacking on fun side projects, you will find him working out with the November Project community early in the mornings.
Damian has been passionate about programming since he was in high school. He started off his professional career as a front-end developer and quickly shifted to full-stack development. He is passionate about all things Ruby / Rails, clean object oriented design and test driven development. He loves working with startups to help bring products to life from the ground up.
Connie started playing with computers since she was 8 and hasn't stopped since. A fan of both clean designs and wabi-sabi, Connie's excited to be building great products for the web. She received her BFA in Graphic Design and Interactive Media at Northeastern University in 2012. Feel free to reach out via email or Twitter.
Corwin is a designer with a precision and attention to detail that reflect his love of effective, communicative, and engaging design. Before graduating from Appalachian State University with a B.F.A. in Graphic Design, he grew up overseas in Nairobi, Kenya. He believes that the opportunity to experience the world as a cross cultured individual has given him a unique perspective on what it means to be a global citizen. While first and foremost a designer, he is also an avid soccer player/fan, foodie, and lover of travel.
Harry's been coding since he was a wee lad, but he also brings us his invaluable experience as a Christmas tree farmer, computational biologist, and Renaissance Faire reenactor. He also holds a B.S. in mathematics from Ursinus College and an M.S. in computer science from William & Mary. When he's not programming, he enjoys reading, cooking, going to tech meetups, and offering unsolicited Emacs advocacy.
Eric has always enjoyed learning and sharing new ideas. He was particularly drawn to code as a tool for change when he took a class in college where he developed educational software for elementary students. After spending time working abroad in Taiwan, he moved to New York, where he fell in love with Ruby and has been sharing that love with others through mentoring and teaching. While not typing away on Emacs, Eric can be found traveling the world or enjoying the outdoors with his corgi.
Don has been interested with user interfaces since Mac OS 7 and the web since the great Geocities era (RIP). Before thoughtbot, he studied Graphic Design at Otis College of Art and Design in Los Angeles. You can also find him outside at various shows or inside making music with Renoise.
Nick first discovered programming at the age of 13 during a summer at MIT's computer camp. He took some time apart from coding to earn a B.S. in Mechanical Engineering at Penn State, only to return to his first love when he started with Ruby on Rails in 2012. A native New Yorker and entrepreneur at heart, Nick is fully immersing himself in the booming NYC tech industry. In his free time he enjoys lifting things up and putting them down, snowboarding, and listening to classic and underground hip hop.
Thom studied tv/film production at DeSales University before spending nearly a decade working as a freelance editor in Los Angeles. Deciding to get a jump start on the singularity, he joined thoughtbot in 2014; and outside of the office is a podcaster, nerdy comic gamer guy & opinionated consumer with a penchant for dorky fitness involved in a dark and twisted love/hate relationship with geek-culture and run-on sentences.
Joshua has been designing and developing user interfaces for the web since the late '90s. Before joining thoughtbot, he cofounded a development studio in Oklahoma City and helped startups bring their visions to life. He loves crafting experiences, and continues this passion away from the computer through home brewing, cooking and art.
Steven is a SF transplant originating in Michigan, by way of Michigan State University. With a background in psychology, Steven is fascinated by how we interact and behave on the web. He enjoys spending his free time with his dog wandering the hills of Silicon Valley or exploring SF's finest coffee shops and eateries. Get in touch with him – @smharley.
Jason Ramirez was born in the 80’s and he has the bodacious vocabulary to prove it. Growing up as the son of two Artists/Professors of Art, Jason was lucky enough to be surrounded by fine-art, design and MacPaint. Since moving to NYC in 07’, Jason has been freelance designing full time. When not making things pretty, Jason can be found eating hamburgers, perusing art exhibitions, and telling you his opinion.
Tyson hails from the midwest and has been dabbling with the web since the days of GeoCities. After studying recording arts and music business at Full Sail University, he moved to New York to work in architectural acoustics. He soon found himself designing websites in the evenings which led to full-time freelancing before joining thoughtbot. Tyson enjoys bicycling, a good cup of coffee and currently, he’s probably craving pie.
Stephanie has a passion for helping people do what they're meant to do. Originally from Hawaii, her creative problem-solving and organization served her well as an editor, educator, actor, and pizza chef. She loves New York's artistic offerings and can often be found in a theatre or one of its many comedy clubs.
Calle has been programming since the age of 11 when he started playing with electronics, coding RISC processors in assembly language. After dabbling with all sorts of programming languages he finally stumbled upon Ruby and instantly fell in love. Calle enjoys clean code and is a big fan of test driven development. Before joining thoughtbot Calle was involved in several startups and has also been doing freelance work as a web developer.
Blake enjoys Ruby, Rails, Vim, and TDD. He began programming at the age of 10 in a variety of languages until falling in love with Ruby and Rails. Since then Blake has focused on building simple, clean, and well-designed applications. When he isn't developing you can find him practicing Wing Chun Kung Fu.
Eric (a.k.a "EJ") took the scenic route to programming. In the last decade, EJ worked as a batboy for the Colorado Rockies, earned a B.A. in Finance from the University of Denver, traveled for Volkswagen as a product specialist, hacked spreadsheets as a business analyst, founded iFixPhones.com and played Poker for the better part of a year. In 2013, he sold iFixPhones, attended Dev Bootcamp, and helped launch swotbot.org. A maker & entrepreneur at heart, he loves building 'beautiful and meaningful' things. @iericallen
Simon is a gSchool graduate and San Francisco transplant. He is happiest working on Ruby, Rails, and anything to do with lambdas. He has experience in data analysis and product management and was a Fulbright Scholar in Nepal after studying Engineering at Cornell. He cherishes a good cup of coffee and enjoys getting lost on runs.
Courtney studied environmental conservation at the University of New Hampshire before starting a career in recruiting and administration. She has a passion for event planning, sustainability, organization, and helping others. Outside of work, she enjoys cooking, playing with her dog Rasta, reading, and traveling.
Carolann likes to solve problems that empower people. She holds a bachelor's degree in Interdisciplinary Art & Design from the University of North Texas. She loves exchanging knowledge with new people over a nice cup of coffee.
Ian enjoys asking dumb questions for good reasons. He's interested in building useful applications that people love, collaborating with others of varying strengths, pair-programming, and crafting software sustainably. Ian's in the New York office, but grew up in New Jersey where he cut his programming teeth in TI BASIC. In early 2010, he discovered good coffee at Blue Bottle in San Francisco, and it's all been downhill from there.
Melanie discovered her love of programming when she took a course in C. Once she wrote her first for loop, there was no looking back. She was accepted into Hungry Academy shortly thereafter, where she learned Ruby and Rails and that she'd never need to write a for loop again. Melanie loves TDD and thinks there's nothing more beautiful than a good refactor. When she's not working, you might find her knitting or solving a crossword puzzle.
Keith is an iOS and OS X developer. He is a CocoaPods core team member who loves contributing to open source software. In his spare time he tries to learn all of the things. On the rare occasion that he isn't on the computer, he enjoys craft beer, cycling, and masochistically rooting for the Chicago Cubs.
Sean is an avid Rails developer and an aspiring iOS developer. He graduated from Saint Joseph's University with a BS in Computer Science. He works out of the Philadelphia office. He enjoys tight feedback loops, warm weather, road trips, nollie flips, and Wawa.
After beginning his career in package design for some of the world’s leading brands, Will began working as a interface designer and front-end architect. He loves making the web a beautiful and meaningful place. When he's not piloting giant robots to defend the city, Will can be found crafting detail-driven user experiences with the help of a good cup of tea.
Brenda is a Silicon Valley native who moved to NYC to escape the tech world, only to discover that tech is actually pretty awesome. Outside of thoughtbot, she teaches HTML/CSS with Girl Develop It, is a co-organizer for Manhattan JS, and specializes in belting out 80's hair metal at karaoke.
Rachel loves human psychology (typical “INFJ”), beauty, and rendering the abstract concrete. Prior to thoughtbot, she did freelance interactive design, co-founded a web app to combat child malnutrition, and was on the startup team of a fair trade coffee company. She enjoys cooking, Colorado creeks, and spending time with family.
Ian is a Pennsylvania native and a SUNY Fredonia graduate (BS in Computer Science and Sound Recording Technology). He enjoys clear code, playing music, homebrewing, learning, teaching, and guessing how to pronounce Boston suburbs. He is not the Ian from Jethro Tull, but he's not offended if you put him in the same category.
Jeff is a designer based in San Francisco. He's formally trained in fine art, a graduate of Dev Bootcamp, and holds a BA in Philosophy. When not in the office, he is most often found with a backpack, hiking, snowboarding, climbing, or traveling.
Charlie is a seasoned financial professional with experience growing companies in fast paced environments. Charlie was the Chief Financial Officer of The Merallis Company, a technology services firm. Prior to Merallis, Charlie was a founding management member of PQC, Inc., a management services company which he helped grow to $80M in revenue. Charlie also founded Medical Claims Management (MCM), a practice reimbursement management and consulting firm. Earlier in his career Charlie worked as a Senior Consultant for Price Waterhouse and as Senior Accountant for Deloitte & Touche. He is a CPA and has a B.S. in Accountancy, an A.S. in Management from Bentley College, and an M.M. in Finance and Business Policy from the J.L. Kellogg School at Northwestern University.
A partner at NextView Ventures, David has been focused on early stage Internet startups his entire career, both as an entrepreneur and an investor. He also founded and leads the Web Innovators Group, an organization which holds quarterly entrepreneur events drawing 1000 attendees. Before NextView, David was a Vice President at Venrock and previously a Principal at Masthead Venture Partners. Prior to becoming a venture capitalist, David co-founded Sombasa Media, an e-mail marketing company best known for its flagship product BargainDog. Sombasa was successfully acquired by About Inc., which was soon after acquired by Primedia (NYSE: PRM), where David served as Vice President of Marketing.
Ralph has been with thoughtbot since late 2003. He does not hold any formal educational degrees, but he’s a very courteous host and is well respected in the Boston robot community (we think). In his spare time, Ralph is an avid drummer and technical manual enthusiast.